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Library and Resources

The purpose of this library is to list and describe recent articles and books related to the work of Oakland Serves.  Most articles are available via this site as a link. Books are listed in a separate bibliography (Part VI, with annotations noting relevance to the subjects covered in Parts I through V. This library is a work in progress and we welcome suggestions for additions (post 2008) or corrections (write to oaklandserves@gmail.com). No sources earlier than 2005 are cited and the vast majority are much more recent (2010-2018). Periodic updates will be made.  The library is meant to be a reference tool, not a scholarly publication.  It tells only the relevant essence of each source cited, giving a citation for each. To get directly to the article, or to find out which relevant topics are covered in the books, click on the citation in Part VII.

 

Part VII, How Academic Mentoring Works, Data from the Classroom, introduces a new form of data relevant to the problem of dropping out.  Its genesis and how to use it are described in its own Introduction.

 

For full citations please see REFERENCES

 

Introduction: The Dropout Problem

Library

Recent Data

Part I : Student Conditions Correlated With Decision To Drop Out

Latest Cohort Data

 
 

Students who live in difficult circumstances – poverty, presence of domestic violence, presence of gangs or other forms of neighborhood violence and crime - are more likely to drop out of high school. So are those who suffer from low self-esteem. Better understanding the nature of the crisis requires examining dropping out in all these ways - as a status that affects a group of individuals, as an event that occurs at particular places and times, and as a process that develops over a long period of time. (Rumberger, 2011.

Teen Pregnancy

Teen pregnancy pressures students to drop out of school due to the associated health, financial and time obligations.  This disrupts the education process as the priorities of the student shift to pregnancy and childrearing in lieu of finishing school (Shuger, 2012).

 

Access to family planning programs, such as Planned Parenthood, help reduce teen pregnancy rates, which in turn reduce high school dropout rates (Hicks-Courant and Schwartz, 2016). Establishing health care programs and centers at schools helps reduce teen pregnancy rates, which in turn reduce high school dropout rates (Lovenheim, et al., 2016).

Birth rates for teenage females, especially minority females, remain stubbornly high, despite long-term declines. (Rumberger, 2011).

Poverty

Poverty affects children’s well-being, school readiness, and performance in school.  Almost twice as many students from low income homes drop out as do student from middle class backgrounds.  Racially isolated schools in low-income communities overwhelmingly educate high percentage of students from low-income homes and produce low graduation rates and academic incomes (Dianda, 2008).

 

Public housing communities, which have concentrations of extremely low-income households and disproportionate numbers of children and youth, are among the most distressed communities in the nation (Hunt, 2012). In 2009, poor students were five times more likely to drop out of high school than high-income students (Chapman et al., 2011). “Toxic stress” associated with family poverty such as frequent movements of districts, homelessness, hunger, food insecurity, domestic violence drug abuse and other problems in early childhood leads to lasting impacts on learning (linguistic, cognitive and social-emotional skills), behavior and health (Shonkoff & Garner, 2012).

 

 

Early Exposure to Violence and Other Trauma

Direct experience or witnessing of physical abuse, sexual abuse and assault, domestic violence, community or school violence, severe neglect, bullying, traumatic injury and traumatic loss of a loved one are all associated with higher rates of dropping out. There are adverse effects of child maltreatment on educational attainment; in particular, severe physical abuse was associated with reduced years of education (Tanaka et al., 2014).

 

A study of adolescence deemed at-risk for high school dropout confirmed that higher levels of cumulative childhood victimization is significantly associated with mental health maladjustment in young adulthood (Hooven et al., 2012). Traumatic stress increases the likelihood of dropout (Porche et al., 2011). Neighborhood violence significantly decreases the odds of high school graduation (Harding, 2009). Although not all dropouts are a result of long term childhood trauma and/or stressors, a study of at-risk youth high school students found that exposure to severe stressful events had spiked among dropouts in the few months prior to their departure and that during this period it was much higher than among matched at-risk and average schoolmates who had not been so exposed. (Dupéré, 2018)

Single Parent Homes and Foster Care

Children from single-parent homes score lower on tests of cognitive functioning and standardized tests, receive lower GPAs, and complete fewer years of school when compared to children from two-parent homes and this is more pronounced in homes  where the father is absent. 

 

In fact, however, many children in single-parent homes do attain academic success (Barajas, 2011).  About half of 15 year olds in foster care drop out of high school (Dianda, 2008) but again many do graduate from high school and 50% of them attend college (Barajas, 2011).  

 

Frequent changes in living placements and schools of attendance negatively affect the ability of foster youth to complete high school, as do multiple changes in ongoing course requirements and rules regarding transferability of credits. (Clemens, Lalonde and Sheesly, 2016).

Substance Abuse

Although substance abuse is negatively associated with the probability of graduation (Hedges 2015) authors often suggest that “unobserved variables”  such as users’ association with “deviant peers” or having “opposition to traditional values” may be a stronger primary cause. (McCaffrey et al., 2010).  

 

Users of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and other drugs are more likely to drop out than non-users and those who use more than one drug (polydrug users) are yet more likely to drop out.  Alcohol acts a “gateway” to other drugs. Prevention efforts targeting alcohol use not only reduce dropout rates but discourage use of other drugs as well. (Kelly et al., 2015). 

Low Self-esteem and Low Student Engagement with School

While the dropout crisis is a nationwide problem, it affects certain demographics at higher rates than others. Males are more likely to drop out and less likely to complete high school than females. Blacks and Hispanics are more likely to drop out and less likely to complete high school than whites and Asians. Low-income students are more likely to drop out of school than high-income students. (Rumberger, 2011) One must closely consider the differences black and brown students experience in comparison to their white and Asian classmates.

 

Racism in the classroom does not have to be in the form of direct racism coming from the teacher; it can be structural as well. Communities surrounding schools with predominantly low SES, black and Latina/o school communities, often have high levels of poverty and violence, which adversely affect a school’s social and emotional climate. This negative affect on school climate are significantly related to higher rates of discipline and lower grades among racial minority students. (De Pedro et al., 2016).

 

Another direct form of racism students face while in school is targeted disciplinary action. Recent research argues that enhanced disciplinary attention toward Black/African American and Latina/o students constitutes a means of socializing adolescents to believe they deserve increased social control and educational failure. (Peguero et al., 2016).

Teacher and Peer Relations

Establishing close emotional bonds with friends reduces the likelihood of dropping out of high school. In contrast, distant friendships put students at risk of dropping out if those friends are at risk as well. Students who drop out of high school end up with fewer friends as well as with friends who are less likely to succeed. (Carbonaro and Workman, 2013) Prevalence of Teasing and Bullying (PTB) is part of a sequence of experiences and events in the high school setting correlated with dropping out. (Cornell, Dewey, et al., 2013).

 

Focusing on better teacher engagement and community involvement, improving transitions between schools and promoting positive peer relationships help reduce likelihood students will drop out. (Ecker-Lyster and Niileksela, 2016).

Wider gaps between income in areas of lower social mobility put youth at a disadvantage for completing their schooling.  Perceptions of a low “return of investment” due to prolonged income inequality discourage youth from investing in their academic futures and increase the likelihood of their dropping out of high school. (Kearney, 2014). In addition, because of economic difficulties for the families of students, students may be forced to begin working while they are still in school. The more a student works in order to help their family financially, the more likely they will focus less on their education and the more likely they will be to drop out (Ray, 2017).

More generally, exposure to violence contributes to development traits that reduce the likelihood of graduation, such as difficulties with problem solving and decision making, more impulsive behavior, struggles with interpersonal relationships and underdeveloped emotional intelligence (Jarjoura, 2013).

The School-To-Prison-Pipeline (STPP) is another form of violence students in low-income communities of color face. The STPP is a mechanism that effectively ensures that students, majority Black and Brown students, do not complete school and enter the prison system. The STPP is defined as a set of policies and practices that make the criminalization and incarceration of children and youth more likely and the attainment of a high-quality education less likely. It is the emphasis of punitive consequences, student exclusion, and justice-system intervention over students’ rights to an education. (Wun, 2018).

Demographic Differences May Lead to Structural Racism

Low self esteem is related to low student engagement with school, which is in turn negatively related to willingness to participate in academic activities (Fall, 2012) and to academic achievement (You & Sharkey, 2009)  and positively related to dropping out of school (Fall, 2012). 

 

Adolescents who exhibit signs of low self-esteem may be considered at risk for adopting or experimenting with deviant or potentially destructive behaviors (Capuzzi & Gross, 2014). A student’s determination as to the source of his or her success or failure has been shown to predict academic achievement. Specifically, students who attribute their academic outcomes to external factors or believe it is out of their control, and who therefore have a low degree of academic self-efficacy, tend to perform poorly compared to students who attribute their outcomes to their own personal sources. (Boutakidis, 2014). Juvenile delinquency may be more common among low self-esteem males than among high self-esteem males (Tice & Giallot, 2006). 

Effects of Legislation

Positive In-state residence tuition (IRT) policies promote incentives for foreign-born non-citizens to complete high school and lower dropout rates. (Potochnick, 2014) Implementation of medical marijuana laws create more “permissive” environments for marijuana use. Increased social exposure to marijuana use results in adolescents becoming more likely to drop out of high school. (Plunk et al., 2016)

 

Implementation of mandatory high school exit examinations discourage students from completing high school. Although raising graduation requirements create uniform standards, they come with the cost of neglecting students at the margins of failing. Those students are either those who fail the exam, therefore dropping out, or those who do not take the exam out of fear of failing, therefore preemptively dropping out. (Papay, Murnane and Willet, 2014).

Part II : Conditions Correlated With Having Dropped Out

High School Dropouts Will Earn Less Than Their Peers

Average annual income for a high school dropout in 2009 was $19,540 compared to $27,380 for a high school graduate (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011). High school dropouts earn an average $375,000 less than high school graduates and roughly $1 million less than college graduates (Burrus & Roberts, 2012). In 2005, 600,000 dropouts will each earn $260,000 less over a lifetime, for a total of $158 billion in lost earnings and $50 billion in lost taxes (Rouse, 2005).​

 

In environments of shared characteristics in upbringing, siblings who dropped out were at an increased risk of economic hardship compared to brothers or sisters who graduated from high school. The consequences of dropping out resulted in a 0.337 decreased income-to-poverty ratio, a 24% loss of earned income, and fewer weeks worked in the year. (Campbell, 2015).

Dropouts Will Not Be Eligible for 90% of US Jobs

Unemployment rate of all education levels skyrocketed since December 2007; high school dropouts faced the most difficulty with finding a job (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011).

 

Consider that, since 1983, among prime-age workers between the ages of 25 and 54 (i) earnings of high school dropouts have fallen by 2 percent and (ii) earnings of high school graduates have increased by 13 percent (Georgetown University, 2010).

Adolescent health problems are markers for high school dropout, independent of parental socioeconomic status (De Ridder et al., 2013). The health of the average 20-year old high school dropout is comparable to that of the average 40-year old college graduate (Muennig, 2007).

 

Persons without a high school education lost 12.8 potential life-years per person in the population, as compared with 3.6 for persons who graduated from high school (Wong, 2002). Frequent attenders to school health services and youth health clinics at age 15-16 years had a high dropout rate compared with those with no or moderate use (Homlong et al., 2013). High school dropouts are more likely to engage in substance abuse even when pursuing a GED. (Reingle Gonzalez et al., 2015).

Dropouts Have More Health Problems

Dropouts Are More Likely to Spend Time in Prison

Nearly 80 percent of individuals in prison do not have a high school diploma (McKeon, 2006). There is nearly a 70 percent chance that an African American man without a high school diploma will be imprisoned by his mid-30s (Kearney & Harris, 2014).

 

A one-year increase in average years of schooling for dropouts would reduce murder and assault by almost 30 percent and motor vehicle theft by 20 percent; in addition, increasing high school completion one percent for all men ages 20 to 60 would save $1.4 billion per year in crime-related costs (Kearney & Harris, 2014). 

 

The choice of dropping out limits future educational and career prospects, which in turn increases the appeal of criminal activity as an alternative. (Merlo and Wolpin, 2015).

 

Part III: Communities Suffer When Dropout Rates Are High

 

Dropouts and Crime

Financial Burden to Community

Crime is potentially displaced from streets to schools when the minimum dropout age is higher; school attendance decreases the time available for criminal activity (Anderson, 2014).

 

Targeting crime reductions through increases in high school graduation rates entails large efficiency and welfare gains—these gains are absent if same crime reduction is achieved by increasing length of sentences (Fella & Gallipoli, 2006). Schooling significantly reduces self-reported crime, arrests and incarceration (Dianda, 2008).  

1. Lower Taxes Paid High school dropouts will pay $36 billion less in taxes over their lifetime. Estimated loss of $50 billion per year in federal and state income tax revenues, or 5% of the individual income tax revenue collected in 2004 (Rouse, 2005). Compared to a high school dropout, a high school graduate yields a public benefit of over $200,000 more in lower government spending and higher tax revenue (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011).
 

2. Dropouts Receive Larger % of Safety Net Assets (e.g. food stamps, housing assistance, welfare payments). Potential savings in public assistance costs that might be produced through improved education ranges from $7.9 to 10.8 billion (Waldfogel et al., 2005).

3. Dropouts Drive Up Criminal Justice Costs. Increasing the high school completion rate of men ages 20 to 60 by 1% would save the United States as much as $1.4 billion per year in criminal justice costs (Dianda, 2008).

Dropouts and Civic Engagement

Dropouts are less likely to take part in both political participation and civic participation which are crucial to a well-functioning society. Specifically, dropouts are less likely to vote, volunteer, or donate blood. (Rumberger, 2011).

Part IV: Programs Useful for Reducing Dropping Out

 

Adolescents need mentors not only to advance their education but also to to be guided in the right direction and to be encouraged to stay clear of harmful external factors that may put them at risk of dropping out. These factors include peer pressure, substance abuse, violence, amongst others. (Smink et al., 2004).

 

Promising and transformative mentoring programs incorporate mentoring relationships that are characterized by mutuality, trust, and empathy. Effective mentoring is greatly dependent on the one-on-one relationship but research shows it is more important to consider the racial identity of the youth and the cultural competency of the mentor (Jarjoura, The American Institutes for Research, 2013). When minority youth have developed a healthy ethnic identity, they are more likely to achieve more positive academic, psychological, and social outcomes (Jarjoura, 2013).

 

The Mentoring Center in Oakland is cited as one program where participants are more likely to stay in school and attain higher levels of educational success (Jarjoura, 2013).Youths offered mentoring, educational services and financial rewards tended to obtain high school diplomas earlier and were more likely to attend postsecondary education (Rodriguez-Planas, 2012).

 

Adolescents with mentors have fewer behavior problems and more positive attitudes than adolescents without mentors; in addition, mentors have been shown to foster resilience in adolescents by serving as a buffer for risk factors (Southwick et al., 2005).

 

Regular mentoring contacts are associated with more favorable outcomes in education and work (Curtis, 2012). Mentoring as an intervention strategy improves outcomes across multiple areas including academic performance (DuBois et al.,2011). Mentors during a six month period can be an effective technique for promoting positive behavior: students feel better about themselves and engage in less destructive behavior toward themselves and others (Keating, 2002).

 

Mentors increase student success by monitoring progress, acting as role models and advocating for students. Mentors showing strong interest in the student’s success encourage s increased engagement in their education, leading to a lesser likelihood of dropping out. (Wilkins and Bost, 2016)

Mentoring Works

Financial Rewards Help Students Stay in School

When academies provide internships with local businesses and include technical coursework as well as academic coursework, students are less likely to drop out (Kennely & Mondrad, 2007).

 

Research in developing countries found that providing families with significant financial incentives modestly increases secondary students’ attendance (Slavin, 2010).

High School Training for Chosen Careers Decreases Dropping Out

Interventions that include education, employment and training, and second chance programs have demonstrated positive results for young men of color (Wimer & Bloom, 2014). Career programming for youth can be an effective solution to underachievement and school dropout rates (Perry & Wallace, 2012). 

 

Lack of academic engagement and interest can discourage youth from completing their schooling. Vocational programs providing practical hands-on experiences complement learning in the classroom and thus encourage youth to remain in school. Work related programs help across participation characteristics and program settings (Young, 2013).  

Providing Stronger Support to Students Decreases Dropping out

School-Wide Positive Behavior, Interventions and Support (SWPBIS), including focus on school environment, reform of the disciplinary system, and steps taken to promote good attendance, have a positive effect on high school dropout rates. (Freeman et al. 2015)

 

Strong teacher support is instrumental in ensuring academic success in authoritative school climates. (Jia, Konold and Cornell, 2016)

Service Learning Decreases Dropping Out

Service learning connects meaningful community service experiences with academic learning. This teaching and learning method promotes personal and social growth, career development, and civic responsibility, and can be a powerful vehicle for effective school reform at all grade levels. (Schargel, 2012).

Part V: How Other Nations Address Dropout Problems

 

Poor relations with teachers and classmates are more likely to lead to dropping out in Denmark than poor relations with family and friends. A program promoting positive relationships in the school not only improved dropout rates, but also alleviated the impact made by poor family and friend relationships (Winding and Anderson, 2015).

Mentor teams from coaches, social workers, school attendance officers, health services and police contribute to reducing dropout rates in the Netherlands.  (De Witte et al., 2013).

Programs in Europe have established cash allowances to students, subsidies to disadvantaged schools, and mentoring opportunities. These social investments resulted in a lower dropout rate to offset the higher social costs dropping out has had on communities. (Brunello and De Paola, 2014). 


Habitual truancy is related to the likelihood of dropping out in other nations as well as in the United States.   Secondary schools in the Netherlands have established strict truancy reporting and attendance monitoring,  resulting in better attendance and thereby to a lower likelihood of dropping out. (De Witte et al., 2014).

Australian students from rural and regional locations with a greater concentration of low economic status (SES) families have fewer students completing high school. In such communities, increasing the quality of peer relationships, students math and English skills, and levels of teacher support, improve graduation rates (Watson, et al., 2016).

A school-based intervention program in Norway was designed in efforts to improve psychological learning environments and subsequently school achievements and decrease drop-out and absence. The first program (DSP) creates learning environments where students are confident and experience a sense of belonging, and where mental health is promoted. The second program (MHST) focuses on specific students who are at risk of dropping out and provides assistance to these youth bases on their individual experience. Both programs helped create a better learning environment for the youth (Larsen, 2018).

Part VI: Books Relevant to Above Topics

Part VII: How Academic Mentoring Works, Reports from the Classroom

INTRODUCTION

In this section of the Library we invite you to learn about the efforts made by Oakland Serves’ program of providing volunteer mentors directly to the schools by reading what the mentors themselves have had to say about their work during the first year of mentoring, conducted at McClymonds High School.  

The Program

As is explained more thoroughly on the About page of this website, in this program the mentors work primarily within the classrooms.  They sit with their mentees (students who have been identified by teachers and administrators as at risk of dropping out) and explain assignments, and help students get their answers on paper and turned in.  When the student needs to talk about something else going on in their lives, mentors listen empathetically, and, if appropriate, offer friendly advice and encouragement, but they always come back to the assignment.  When mentees do not show up or do not respond, the mentors keep coming.  They may offer help to other students nearby if the teacher approves. After each session, the mentor submits a Weekly Mentor Report (WMR) to the Oakland Serves Volunteer Coordinator, who responds and shares any serious problems with the school.

The Report

The document that follows is composed entirely of extracts from the Weekly Mentor Reports.  They have been thoroughly redacted (no personal information is available; initials used have been changed) and lightly edited.

We have discovered that with some help and encouragement these students can do the work, but whether or not they will do so is often uncertain.  This kind of mentoring is not easy, and our reports make that clear.  Our mentors have developed a variety of tactics that do work, some of them very slowly, some only partially, some with amazing success.  These are revealed in the reports.

Access

This document provides a new kind of access to data.  What follows is all the reports submitted by ten of our mentors.  But you may not have the time or interest to read it all.  If you want to read all the extracts from a single mentor you will find that the document is so organized, from mentor 1 through 10.  But if you are interested in particular subjects, note that we have coded all the extracts to help you find what you want: just click on one or more of the following codes.

The Uses 

We hope you will find this material useful and pass it on to others.   It is open to all readers: current and prospective mentors, teachers, librarians, journalists, foundations, individual funders, whoever you may be.  All we ask is that if you include this in a publication of your own please cite the source: Bacon, N., Friedman M., Hackenbracht M., Lawson K. and Zhang, I. How Academic Mentoring Works, Reports from the Classroom, 2019, www.oaklandserves.org

The Redacted Weekly Mentor Reports

Conclusion

Reading these excerpts, partially or in their entirety, demonstrates that this form of mentoring often works, but not always.  Here we find mentors trying a wide range of tactics, getting better at their work, learning the crucial importance of patience and persistence -- even well-trained mentors can stumble, and learn how to do better in practice.  We find students who have been ignored and oppressed by circumstance slowly opening up and taking small and not so small practical steps toward graduation.  A high school diploma stands for work, but work is hard to do if you don’t believe in yourself any more and nobody else seems to care enough to give you the help you need.  Students at risk are not high achievers, but they can become so.  Their right to help is based not on merit, but on need, and the need they feel is almost always owing to no fault of their own.   

Mentors help enormously but others help as well. Communities can help. School districts can provide support. Companies and other institutions can reward this kind of service by providing paid time off to employees who mentor and by making contributions. Individuals can recruit and support mentors.   Everyone can serve, one way or another.  To serve in Oakland, go to www.oaklandserves.org/volunteer. 

 
 

[Work in progress]

Rumberger, Russell W. Dropping Out: Why Students Drop Out of High School And What Can Be Done About It. President and Fellows of Harvard College. 2011.

 

This book covers topics regarding the causes and effects of dropping out. Specifically, it covers the importance of understanding the dropout crisis, the various factors that cause students to drop out, such as the impact of poverty, and the effect a student’s demographic identity has on chances of succeeding in school.

 

Smink, Jay, and Franklin P. Schargel. Helping Students Graduate: A Strategic Approach to Drop Out Prevention. Eye on Education. 2004.

 

This book addresses the importance of mentorship for high school youth and the benefits it brings. Specifically, it covers the positive effect for students of having a mentor who guides them and shares similar demographic backgrounds. Also, other tips and tools are included to help create the most effective strategies to prevent drop out of youth.

 

Schargel, Franklin P. Dropout Prevention Fieldbook: Best Practices from the Field. Eye on Education. 2012.

 

This book offers guidance on how to prevent dropout by directly working with youth in the classroom. It includes worksheets that have simplified the different approaches teachers, parents, and other volunteers can take in order to prevent dropping out.

Ray, Ranita. The Making of a Teenage Service Class : Poverty and Mobility in an American City, University of California Press, 2017.

 

This book covers the economic hardships students living in low-income communities endure and the effects these hardships have on students’ educational achievements. Specifically, it analyzes the relationship between students having to work throughout high school and how working during this time period affects students’ probability of seeking higher education, (working in the service industry instead).

 

Part VIII: References

For further reading, click any of the underlined links.

 

  1. Alliance For Excellent Education. (2011). The High Cost of High School Dropouts: What the Nation Pays for Inadequate High Schools.Al­liance for Excellent Education, Issue Brief, November 2011.
     

  2. Anderson, D. Mark (2014). In School and Out of Trouble? The Minimum Dropout Age and Juvenile Crime. MIT Press Journals: The Review of Economics and Statistics, May 2014, Vol. 96, No. 2, Pages 318-331.
     

  3. Barajas, Mark S. (2011).  Academic Achievement of Children in Single Parent Homes: A Critical Review. The Hilltop Review: Vol. 5: 1, Article 4.​
     

  4. Boutakidis, Ioakim P., and Rodríguez, James L., Miller, Kari Knutson, and Barnett, Mathew. "Academic Engagement and Achievement among Latina/o and Non-Latina/o Adolescents." Journal of Latinos and Education 13.1 (2014): 4-13.
     

  5. Brunello, Giorgio, and Maria De Paola. "The Costs of Early School Leaving in Europe." IZA Journal of Labor Policy 3.1 (2014): 22.
     

  6. Burrus, Jeremy and Roberts, Richard. (2012). Dropping Out of High School: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Remediation Strategies. Educational Testing Service (ETS) R & D Connections, n18, Feb, 2012. Accessed March 10, 2015, from https://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/RD_Connections18.pdf.
     

  7. Campbell, Colin. (2015). The Socioeconomic Consequences of Dropping out of High School: Evidence from an Analysis of Siblings. Social Science Research 51: 108-18.
     

  8. Capuzzi, D., and Gross, D. R. (2014). Youth at risk: A Prevention Resource for Counselors, Teachers, and Parents. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
     

  9. Carbonaro, William, and Joseph Workman. (2013). Dropping out of High School: Effects of Close and Distant Friendships. Social Science Research 42.5: 1254-68. Print.
     

  10. Chapman, C., Laird, J., Ifill, N., & KewalRamani, A. (2011). Trends in high school dropout and completion rates in the United States: 1972-2009. (NCES 2012-06). Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Accessed 4/21/2015 through  http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2012006
     

  11. Clemens, Elysia V., Trent L. Lalonde, and Alison Phillips Sheesley (2016). The Relationship between School Mobility and Students in Foster Care Earning a High School Credential. Children and Youth Services Review 68: 193-201.
     

  12. Cornell, Dewey, et al. (2013). Perceived Prevalence of Teasing and Bullying Predicts High School Dropout Rates. Journal of Educational Psychology 105.1: 138-49 pp. Web. 2016-08-22.
     

  13. CSBA Fact Sheet. (2013). California High School Graduation and Dropout Rates. California School Boards Association. Accessed April 24, 2015 through http://www.csba.org/GovernanceAndPolicyResources/~/media/CSBA/Files/GovernanceResources/GovernanceBriefs/201305FactSheetHSGradRates.ashx
     

  14. Curtis, Meagan. (2012). A Thesis: Relationship Between Adult Mentors and Placement Outcomes Among At-Risk Youth.Louisiana State University in Department of Social Work.
     

  15. De Pedro, et al. “A Latent Class Analysis of School Climate among Middle and High School Students in California Public Schools.” Children and Youth Services Review, vol. 63, no. C, 2016, pp. 10–15.
     

  16. De Ridder, et al. (2013). Adolescent health and high school dropout: a prospective cohort study of 9000 Norwegian adolescents. PLoS One 8(9):e74954.
     

  17. De Witte, Kristof, and Marton Csillag. "Does Anybody Notice? On the Impact of Improved Truancy Reporting on School Dropout." Education Economics 22.6 (2014): 549-68.
     

  18. De Witte, Kristof and Sofie J. Cabus. "Dropout Prevention Measures in the Netherlands, an Explorative Evaluation." Educational Review 65.2 (2013): 155-76.  
     

  19. Dianda, Marcella R (2008). Preventing Future High School Dropouts: An Advocacy and Action Guide for NEA State and Local Affiliates. National Education Association. Pp 61-63
     

  20. DuBois, D. L., Portillo, N., Rhodes, J. E., Silverthorn, N., & Valentine, J. C. (2011). How Effective Are Mentoring Programs for Youth? A Systematic Assessment of the Evidence.Psychological Science in the Public Interest,12, 57-91.
     

  21. Dupéré, Véronique, and Eric Dion, Tama Leventhal, Isabelle Archambault, Robert Crosnoe, and Michel Janosz. "High School Dropout in Proximal Context: The Triggering Role of Stressful Life Events." Child Development 89.2 (2018): E107-122.
     

  22. Ecker-Lyster, Meghan, and Christopher Niileksela (2016). Keeping Students on Track to Graduate: A Synthesis of School Dropout Trends, Prevention, and Intervention Initiatives. Journal of At-Risk Issues 19.2: 24-31 pp. EBSCOhost. Web.
     

  23. Education Week. (2014). Children Trends Database: High School Dropout Statistics.Research Date: 1.1.2014. Accessed March 10, 2015 from http://www.statisticbrain.com/high-school-dropout-statistics/
     

  24. Fall, Anna-Maria and Roberts, Greg. (2012). High School Dropouts: Interactions Between Social Context, Self-Perceptions, School Engagement, and Student Dropout. Journal of Adolescence Vol 35, Issue 4, August 2012, pp. 787-798.
     

  25. Fella, Giulio and Gallipoli, Giovanni. (2006). Education and Crime over the Life Cycle. The Oxford Journals: Review of Economic Studies 2014.
     

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