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Library and Resources

The purpose of this library is to list and describe recent articles and books related to the work of Oakland Serves.  Most articles are available via this site as a link. Books are listed in a separate bibliography (Part VI, with annotations noting relevance to the subjects covered in Parts I through V. This library is a work in progress and we welcome suggestions for additions (post 2008) or corrections (write to oaklandserves@gmail.com). No sources earlier than 2005 are cited and the vast majority are much more recent (2010-2018). Periodic updates will be made.  The library is meant to be a reference tool, not a scholarly publication.  It tells only the relevant essence of each source cited, giving a citation for each. To get directly to the article, or to find out which relevant topics are covered in the books, click on the citation in Part VII.

 

Part VIII, How Academic Mentoring Works, Data from the Classroom, introduces a new form of data relevant to the problem of dropping out.  Its genesis and how to use it are described in its own Introduction.

 

For full citations please see REFERENCES

 

Introduction: The Dropout Problem

Library

Teen Pregnancy

Recent Data

  • As reported by the CA Dept of Education, the OUSD Cohort Dropout Rate is now roughly 20.3%.​
     

  • This is an improvement but overall graduation rates show Oakland still lagging far behind it neighbors in Alameda County and in the state as a whole:
     

  • The OUSD Cohort Graduation Rate is 64.9%. The Alameda County Graduation Rate is 85.6% and California Graduation Rate is 83.2%. 

Part I : Student Conditions Correlated With Decision To Drop Out

Teen pregnancy pressures students to drop out of school due to the associated health, financial and time obligations.  This disrupts the education process as the priorities of the student shift to pregnancy and childrearing in lieu of finishing school (Shuger, 2012).

 

Access to family planning programs, such as Planned Parenthood, help reduce teen pregnancy rates, which in turn reduce high school dropout rates (Hicks-Courant and Schwartz, 2016). Establishing health care programs and centers at schools helps reduce teen pregnancy rates, which in turn reduce high school dropout rates (Lovenheim, et al., 2016).

Latest Cohort Data

Students who live in difficult circumstances – poverty, presence of domestic violence, presence of gangs or other forms of neighborhood violence and crime - are more likely to drop out of high school. So are those who suffer from low self-esteem.

Poverty

Poverty affects children’s well-being, school readiness, and performance in school.  Almost twice as many students from low income homes drop out as do student from middle class backgrounds.  Racially isolated schools in low-income communities overwhelmingly educate high percentage of students from low-income homes and produce low graduation rates and academic incomes (Dianda, 2008).

 

Public housing communities, which have concentrations of extremely low-income households and disproportionate numbers of children and youth, are among the most distressed communities in the nation (Hunt, 2012). In 2009, poor students were five times more likely to drop out of high school than high-income students (Chapman et al., 2011). “Toxic stress” associated with family poverty such as high mobility, homelessness, hunger, food insecurity, domestic violence drug abuse and other problems in early childhood leads to lasting impacts on learning (linguistic, cognitive and social-emotional skills), behavior and health (Shonkoff & Garner, 2012).

 

Wider gaps between income in areas of lower social mobility put youth at a disadvantage for completing their schooling.  Perceptions of a low “return of investment” due to prolonged income inequality discourage youth from investing in their academic futures and increase the likelihood of their dropping out of high school. (Kearney, 2014)

Early Exposure to Violence and Other Trauma

Direct experience or witnessing of physical abuse,sexual abuse and assault, domestic violence, community or school violence, severe neglect,bullying, traumatic injury and traumatic loss of aloved one are all associated with higher rates of dropping out. There are adverse effects of child maltreatment on educational attainment; in particular, severe physical abuse was associated with reduced years of education (Tanaka et al., 2014).

 

A study of adolescence deemed at-risk for high school dropout confirmed that higher levels of cumulative childhood victimization is significantly associated with mental health maladjustment in young adulthood (Hooven et al., 2012). Traumatic stress increases the likelihood of dropout (Porche et al., 2011). Neighborhood violence significantly decreases the odds of high school graduation (Harding, 2009).

 

More generally, exposure to violence contributes to development traits that reduce the likelihood of graduation, such as difficulties with problem solving and decision making, more impulsive behavior, struggles with interpersonal relationships and underdeveloped emotional intelligence (Jarjoura, 2013).

Single Parent Homes and Foster Care

Children from single-parent homes score lower on tests of cognitive functioning and standardized tests, receive lower GPAs, and complete fewer years of school when compared to children from two-parent homes and this is more pronounced in homes  where the father is absent. 

 

In fact, however, many children in single-parent homes do attain academic success (Barajas, 2011).  About half of 15 year olds in foster care drop out of high school (Dianda, 2008) but again many do graduate from high school and 50% of them attend college (Barajas, 2011).  

 

Frequent changes in living placements and schools of attendance negatively affect the ability of foster youth to complete high school, as do multiple changes in ongoing course requirements and rules regarding transferability of credits. (Clemens, Lalonde and Sheesly, 2016)

 

Substance Abuse

Although substance abuse is negatively associated with the probability of graduation (Hedges 2015) authors often suggest that “unobserved variables”  such as users’ association with “deviant peers” or having “opposition to traditional values” may be a stronger primary cause. (McCaffrey et al., 2010)  

 

Users of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and other drugs are more likely to drop out than non-users and those who use more than one drug (polydrug users) are yet more likely to drop out.  Alcohol acts a “gateway” to other drugs. Prevention efforts targeting alcohol use not only reduce dropout rates but discourage use of other drugs as well. (Kelly et al., 2015) 

Low Self-esteem and Low Student Engagement with School

Low self esteem is related to low student engagement with school, which is in turn negatively related to willingness to participate in academic activities (Fall, 2012) and to academic achievement (You & Sharkey, 2009)  and positively related to dropping out of school (Fall, 2012). 

 

Adolescents who exhibit signs of low self-esteem may be considered at risk for adopting or experimenting with deviant or potentially destructive behaviors (Capuzzi & Gross, 2014). Juvenile delinquency may be more common among low self-esteem males than among high self-esteem males (Tice & Giallot, 2006). 

Teacher and Peer Relations

Establishing close emotional bonds with friends reduces the likelihood of dropping out of high school. In contrast, distant friendships put students at risk of dropping out if those friends are at risk as well. Students who drop out of high school end up with fewer friends as well as friends who are less likely to succeed. (Carbonaro and Workman, 2013) PTB (Prevalence of Teasing and Bullying) is part of a greater sequence of experiences and events in the high school setting correlated with dropping out. (Cornell, Dewey, et al., 2013) 

 

Focusing on better teacher engagement and community involvement, improving transitions between schools and promoting positive peer relationships help reduce likelihood students will drop out. (Ecker-Lyster and Niileksela, 2016) 

Positive In-state residence tuition (IRT) policies promote incentives for foreign-born non-citizens to complete high school and lower dropout rates. (Potochnick, 2014) Implementation of medical marijuana laws create more “permissive” environments for marijuana use. Increased social exposure to marijuana use results in adolescents to be more likely to drop out of high school. (Plunk et al., 2016)

 

Implementation of mandatory high school exit examinations discourage students from completing high school. Although raising graduation requirements create uniform standards, they come with the cost of neglecting students at the margins of failing. Those students are either those who fail the exam, therefore dropping out, or those who do not take the exam out of fear of failing, therefore preemptively dropping out. (Papay, Murnane and Willet, 2014)

Effects of Legislation

Part II : Conditions Correlated With Having Dropped Out

 

High School Dropouts Will Earn Less Than Their Peers

Average annual income for a high school dropout in 2009 was $19,540 compared to $27,380 for a high school graduate (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011). High school dropouts earn an average $375,000 less than high school graduates and roughly $1 million less than college graduates (Burrus & Roberts, 2012). In 2005, 600,000 dropouts will each earn $260,000 less over a lifetime, for a total of $158 billion in lost earnings and $50 billion in lost taxes (Rouse, 2005).​

 

In environments of shared characteristics in upbringing, siblings who dropped out were at an increased risk of economic hardship compared to brothers or sisters who graduated from high school. The consequences of dropping out resulted in a 0.337 decreased income-to-poverty ratio, a 24% loss of earned income, and fewer weeks worked in the year. (Campbell, 2015) 

They Will Not Be Eligible for 90% of US Jobs

Unemployment rate of all education levels skyrocketed since December 2007; high school dropouts faced the most difficulty with finding a job (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011).

 

Consider that, since 1983, among prime-age workers between the ages of 25 and 54 (i) earnings of high school dropouts have fallen by 2 percent and (ii) earnings of high school graduates have increased by 13 percent (Georgetown University, 2010).

Adolescent health problems are markers for high school dropout, independent of parental socioeconomic status (De Ridder et al., 2013). The health of the average 20-year old high school dropout is comparable to that of the average 40-year old college graduate (Muennig, 2007).

 

Persons without a high school education lost 12.8 potential life-years per person in the population, as compared with 3.6 for persons who graduated from high school (Wong, 2002). Frequent attenders to school health services and youth health clinics at age 15-16 years had a high dropout rate compared with those with no or moderate use (Homlong et al., 2013). High school dropouts are more likely to engage in substance abuse even when pursuing a GED. (Reingle Gonzalez et al., 2015)

Dropouts Have More Health Problems

They Are More Likely to Spend Time in Prison

Nearly 80 percent of individuals in prison do not have a high school diploma (McKeon, 2006). There is nearly a 70 percent chance that an African American man without a high school diploma will be imprisoned by his mid-30s (Kearney & Harris, 2014).

 

A one-year increase in average years of schooling for dropouts would reduce murder and assault by almost 30 percent and motor vehicle theft by 20 percent; in addition, increasing high school completion one percent for all men ages 20 to 60 would save $1.4 billion per year in crime-related costs (Kearney & Harris, 2014). 

 

The choice of dropping out limits future educational and career prospects, which in turn increases the appeal of criminal activity as an alternative. (Merlo and Wolpin, 2015) 

Part III: Communities Suffer When Dropout Rates Are High

Crime is potentially displaced from streets to schools when the minimum dropout age is higher; school attendance decreases the time available for criminal activity (Anderson, 2014).

 

Targeting crime reductions through increases in high school graduation rates entails large efficiency and welfare gains—these gains are absent if same crime reduction is achieved by increasing length of sentences (Fella & Gallipoli, 2006). Schooling significantly reduces self-reported crime, arrests and incarceration (Dianda, 2008).  

Dropouts and Crime

Financial Burden to Community

1. Lower Taxes Paid High school dropouts will pay $36 billion less in taxes over their lifetime. Estimated loss of $50 billion per year in federal and state income tax revenues, or 5% of the individual income tax revenue collected in 2004 (Rouse, 2005). Compared to a high school dropout, a high school graduate yields a public benefit of over $200,000 more in lower government spending and higher tax revenue (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011).
 

2. Dropouts Receive Larger % of Safety Net Assets (e.g. food stamps, housing assistance, welfare payments). Potential savings in public assistance costs that might be produced through improved education ranges from $7.9 to 10.8 billion (Waldfogel et al., 2005).

3. Dropouts Drive Up Criminal Justice Costs. Increasing the high school completion rate of men ages 20 to 60 by 1% would save the United States as much as $1.4 billion per year in criminal justice costs (Dianda, 2008).

Part IV: Usefulness Of Comparable Programs

 
 
 

After school programs have a strong record of supporting a child’s academic program and overall positive development. Out of school learning opportunities help lead to readiness for college and career (Urban Strategies Council, 2011). ​

Promising and transformative mentoring programs incorporate mentoring relationships that are characterized by mutuality, trust, and empathy. Effective mentoring is greatly dependent on the one-on-one relationship but research shows it is more important to consider the racial identity of the youth and the cultural competency of the mentor (Jarjoura, The American Institutes for Research, 2013). When minority youth have developed a healthy ethnic identity, they are more likely to achieve more positive academic, psychological, and social outcomes (Jarjoura, 2013).

 

The Mentoring Center in Oakland is cited as one program where participants are more likely to stay in school and attain higher levels of educational success (Jarjoura, 2013).Youths offered mentoring, educational services and financial rewards tended to obtain high school diplomas earlier and were more likely to attend postsecondary education (Rodriguez-Planas, 2012).

 

Adolescents with mentors have fewer behavior problems and more positive attitudes than adolescents without mentors; in addition, mentors have been shown to foster resilience in adolescents by serving as a buffer for risk factors (Southwick et al., 2005).

 

Regular mentoring contacts are associated with more favorable outcomes in education and work (Curtis, 2012). Mentoring as an intervention strategy improves outcomes across multiple areas including academic performance (DuBois et al.,2011). Mentors during a six month period can be an effective technique for promoting positive behavior: students feel better about themselves and engage in less destructive behavior toward themselves and others (Keating, 2002).

 

Mentors increase student success by monitoring progress, acting as role models and advocating for students. Mentors showing strong interest in the student’s success encourage s increased engagement in their education, leading to a lesser likelihood of dropping out. (Wilkins and Bost, 2016)

Mentoring Works

Financial Rewards Help Students Stay in School

When academies provide internships with local businesses and include technical coursework as well as academic coursework, students are less likely to drop out (Kennely & Mondrad, 2007).

 

Research in developing countries found that providing families with significant financial incentives modestly increases secondary students’ attendance (Slavin, 2010).

High School Training for Chosen Careers Decreases Dropping Out

Interventions that include education, employment and training, and second chance programs have demonstrated positive results for young men of color (Wimer & Bloom, 2014). Career programming for youth can be an effective solution to underachievement and school dropout rates (Perry & Wallace, 2012). 

 

Lack of academic engagement and interest can discourage youth from completing their schooling. Vocational programs providing practical hands-on experiences complement learning in the classroom and thus encourage youth to remain in school. Work related programs help across participation characteristics and program settings (Young, 2013).  

Providing Stronger Support to Students Decreases Dropping out

School-Wide Positive Behavior, Interventions and Support (SWPBIS), including focus on school environment, reform of the disciplinary system, and steps taken to promote good attendance have a positive effect on high school dropout rates. (Freeman et al. 2015)

 

Strong teacher support is instrumental in ensuring academic success in authoritative school climates. (Jia, Konold and Cornell, 2016)

Part V: How Other Nations Address Dropout Problems

Poor relations with teachers and classmates are more likely to lead to dropping out in Denmark than poor relations with family and friends. Promoting positive relationships not only improves dropout rates, but also alleviates the impact made by poor family and friend relationships. (Winding and Anderson, 2015) 

Mentor teams from coaches, social workers, school attendance officers, health services and police contribute to reducing dropout rates in the Netherlands.  (De Witte et al., 2013)

Programs in Europe have established cash allowances to students, subsidies to disadvantaged schools, and mentoring opportunities. These social investments resulted in a lower dropout rate to offset the higher social costs dropping out has had on communities. (Brunello and De Paola, 2014). 


Habitual truancy is related to the likelihood of dropping out in other nations as well as in the United States.   Secondary schools in the Netherlands have established strict truancy reporting and attendance monitoring,  resulting in better attendance and thereby to a lower likelihood of dropping out. (De Witte et al., 2014)

Australian students from rural and regional locations with a greater concentration of low economic status (SES) families have fewer students completing high school.  In such communities, the factors most strongly correlated with staying in school are higher quality of peer relationships, higher abilities in math and English, and higher levels of teacher support. (Watson, et al., 2016)

 
 

References

For further reading, click any of the underlined links.

 

  1. Alliance For Excellent Education. (2011). The High Cost of High School Dropouts: What the Nation Pays for Inadequate High Schools.Al­liance for Excellent Education, Issue Brief, November 2011.
     

  2. Anderson, D. Mark (2014). In School and Out of Trouble? The Minimum Dropout Age and Juvenile Crime. MIT Press Journals: The Review of Economics and Statistics, May 2014, Vol. 96, No. 2, Pages 318-331.
     

  3. Barajas, Mark S. (2011).  Academic Achievement of Children in Single Parent Homes: A Critical Review. The Hilltop Review: Vol. 5: 1, Article 4.​
     

  4. Brunello, Giorgio, and Maria De Paola. "The Costs of Early School Leaving in Europe." IZA Journal of Labor Policy 3.1 (2014): 22.
     

  5. Burrus, Jeremy and Roberts, Richard. (2012). Dropping Out of High School: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Remediation Strategies. Educational Testing Service (ETS) R & D Connections, n18, Feb, 2012. Accessed March 10, 2015, from https://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/RD_Connections18.pdf.
     

  6. Campbell, Colin. (2015). The Socioeconomic Consequences of Dropping out of High School: Evidence from an Analysis of Siblings. Social Science Research 51: 108-18.
     

  7. Capuzzi, D., and Gross, D. R. (2014). Youth at risk: A Prevention Resource for Counselors, Teachers, and Parents. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
     

  8. Carbonaro, William, and Joseph Workman. (2013). Dropping out of High School: Effects of Close and Distant Friendships. Social Science Research 42.5: 1254-68. Print.
     

  9. Chapman, C., Laird, J., Ifill, N., & KewalRamani, A. (2011). Trends in high school dropout and completion rates in the United States: 1972-2009. (NCES 2012-06). Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Accessed 4/21/2015 through  http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2012006
     

  10. Clemens, Elysia V., Trent L. Lalonde, and Alison Phillips Sheesley (2016). The Relationship between School Mobility and Students in Foster Care Earning a High School Credential. Children and Youth Services Review 68: 193-201.
     

  11. Cornell, Dewey, et al. (2013). Perceived Prevalence of Teasing and Bullying Predicts High School Dropout Rates. Journal of Educational Psychology 105.1: 138-49 pp. Web. 2016-08-22.
     

  12. CSBA Fact Sheet. (2013). California High School Graduation and Dropout Rates. California School Boards Association. Accessed April 24, 2015 through http://www.csba.org/GovernanceAndPolicyResources/~/media/CSBA/Files/GovernanceResources/GovernanceBriefs/201305FactSheetHSGradRates.ashx
     

  13. Curtis, Meagan. (2012). A Thesis: Relationship Between Adult Mentors and Placement Outcomes Among At-Risk Youth.Louisiana State University in Department of Social Work.
     

  14. De Ridder, et al. (2013). Adolescent health and high school dropout: a prospective cohort study of 9000 Norwegian adolescents. PLoS One 8(9):e74954.
     

  15. De Witte, Kristof, and Marton Csillag. "Does Anybody Notice? On the Impact of Improved Truancy Reporting on School Dropout." Education Economics 22.6 (2014): 549-68.
     

  16. De Witte, Kristof and Sofie J. Cabus. "Dropout Prevention Measures in the Netherlands, an Explorative Evaluation." Educational Review 65.2 (2013): 155-76.  
     

  17. Dianda, Marcella R (2008). Preventing Future High School Dropouts: An Advocacy and Action Guide for NEA State and Local Affiliates. National Education Association. Pp 61-63
     

  18. DuBois, D. L., Portillo, N., Rhodes, J. E., Silverthorn, N., & Valentine, J. C. (2011). How Effective Are Mentoring Programs for Youth? A Systematic Assessment of the Evidence.Psychological Science in the Public Interest,12, 57-91.
     

  19. Ecker-Lyster, Meghan, and Christopher Niileksela (2016). Keeping Students on Track to Graduate: A Synthesis of School Dropout Trends, Prevention, and Intervention Initiatives. Journal of At-Risk Issues 19.2: 24-31 pp. EBSCOhost. Web.
     

  20. Education Week. (2014). Children Trends Database: High School Dropout Statistics.Research Date: 1.1.2014. Accessed March 10, 2015 from http://www.statisticbrain.com/high-school-dropout-statistics/
     

  21. Fall, Anna-Maria and Roberts, Greg. (2012). High School Dropouts: Interactions Between Social Context, Self-Perceptions, School Engagement, and Student Dropout. Journal of Adolescence Vol 35, Issue 4, August 2012, pp. 787-798.
     

  22. Fella, Giulio and Gallipoli, Giovanni. (2006). Education and Crime over the Life Cycle. The Oxford Journals: Review of Economic Studies 2014.
     

  23. Freeman, Jennifer, et al. (2015). An Analysis of the Relationship between Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports and High School Dropout Rates. High School Journal 98.4: 290 pp. EBSCOhost. Web.
     

  24. Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce. (2010). Help Wanted: Projections of Jobs and Education Requirements Through 2018. Accessed March 13, 2015 through www.georgetown.edu/grad/gppi/hpi/cew/pdfs/FullReport.pdf
     

  25. Harding, D. J. (2009). Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods. Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation, 88(2), 757–784.
     

  26. Hedges, Kristin. (2015). Who Dropped Who?: An Analysis of School Dropouts Among Substance Using Populations. Society for Applied Anthropology. Journal of Practicing Anthropology Vol 37, #1.
     

  27. Hicks-Courant, Katherine, and Aaron L. Schwartz. (2016). Local Access to Family Planning Services and Female High School Dropout Rates. Obstetrics & Gynecology 127.4: 699-705.
     

  28. Homlong, L., Rosvold, E., and Haavet, O. (2013). Can use of healthcare services among 15-16 year olds predict an increased level of high school dropout? A longitudinal community study. BMJ Open 2013, Vol 3, Issue 9
     

  29. Hooven, Carole, Paula S. Nurius, Patricia, Logane-Greene, and Elaine A. Thompson. (2012).Childhood Violence Exposure: Cumulative and Specific Effects on Adult Mental Health.The Journal of Family Practice 27: 511-522
     

  30. Hunt, Bradford D. (2012). Blueprint for Disaster: The Unraveling of Chicago Public Housing. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
     

  31. Ibarraran et al. (2014). Life Skills, Employability and Training for Disadvantaged Youth: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation Design. IZA Journal of Labor & Development 2014, Vol 3, Issue 10.
     

  32. Institute of Education Sciences. (2008). Dropout prevention: A practice guide. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (NCEE), Institute of Education Sciences (IES), US Department of Education (US ED); September 2008.
     

  33. Jarjoura, G. Roger (2013). Effective Strategies for Mentoring African-American Boys.Washington DC: American Institutes for Research, Human and Social Development.
     

  34. Jenkins, Davis,  Zeidenberg, Matthew, and Kienzl, Gregory S. (2009). Educational Outcomes of IBEST, Washington State Community and Technical College System’s Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training Program: Findings from a Multivariate Analysis.  CCRC Working Paper No. 16 (New York: Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University, 2009)
     

  35. Jia, Yuane, Timothy R. Konold, and Dewey Cornell. (2016). Authoritative School Climate and High School Dropout Rates. School Psychology Quarterly 31.2: 289-303 pp. Web. 
     

  36. Kearney, Melissa S. (2014) Income Inequality, Social Mobility, and the Decision to Drop out of High School. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: 333-96.
     

  37. Kearney, Melissa and Harris, Benjamin (2014). Ten Economic Facts about Crime and Incarceration in the United States. Brookings: The Hamilton Project: Policy Memo May 2014. Accessed March 10, 2015, from http://www.hamiltonproject.org/papers/ten_economic_facts_about_crime_and_incarceration_in_the_united_states/.
     

  38. Keating, Lisa M., Tomishima, Michelle A., Foster, Sharon, and Alessandri, Michael. (2002). The effects of a mentoring program on at-risk youth. Adolescence 37, no. 148:717-34
     

  39. Kelly, Adrian B., et al. (2015). A Longitudinal Study of the Association of Adolescent Polydrug Use, Alcohol Use and High School Non-Completion Addiction 110.4: 627-35.
     

  40. Lovenheim, Michael F., Randall Reback, and Leigh Wedenoja. (2016). How Does Access to Health Care Affect Teen Fertility and High School Dropout Rates? School-based Health Centers. No. w22030. National Bureau of Economic Research
     

  41. Kennelly, L., & Monrad, M. (2007). Approaches to dropout prevention: Heeding early warning signs with appropriate interventions. Washington, DC: National High School Center, American Institutes for Research.
     

  42. Maynard, B., Salas-Wright, C., and Vaughn, M. (2014). High School Dropouts in Emerging Adulthood: Substance Use, Mental Health Problems, and Crime. Community Mental Health journal, April 2014, Vol 51:3, pp 289-299
     

  43. ​McCaffrey, Daniel F., Pacula, Rosalie L., Han, Bing, and Ellickson, Phyllis. (2010). Marijuana Use and High School Dropout: The Influence of Unobservables.  Health Econ 2010 Nov; 19(11): 1281-1299. 
     

  44. McKeon, Denise (2006).Research Talking Points on Dropout Statistics: High School Attendance, Graduation, Completion, & Dropout Statistics.National Education Association. Accessed April 10, 2015 through http://www.nea.org/home/13579.html
     

  45. Merlo, Antonio, and Kenneth I. Wolpin (2015). The Transition from School to Jail: Youth Crime and High School Completion among Black Males. European Economic Review 79: 234-51.
     

  46. Moretti, Enrico (2007). Crime and the Costs of Criminal Justice. In C. Belfield and H. Evin (Eds) The price we pay: economic and social consequences of inadequate education (pp. 142-59). Washington DC: The Brookings Institution.
     

  47. Muennig, Peter. (2007). Consequences in Health Status and Costs. In C. Belfied and H. Levin (Eds), “The price we pay: economic and social consequences of inadequate education” (pp. 125-41). Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
     

  48. Papay, John P., Richard J. Murnane, and John B. Willett (2104). High-School Exit Examinations and the Schooling Decisions of Teenagers: Evidence from Regression-Discontinuity Approaches. Journal of research on educational effectiveness 7.1: 1-27.
     

  49. Perry, J. C. and Wallace, E. W. (2012).What schools are doing around career development: Implications for policy and practice. New Directions for Youth Development, 2012: 33–44.
     

  50. Plunk, Andrew D., et al. (2016). The Impact of Adolescent Exposure to Medical Marijuana Laws on High School Completion, College Enrollment and College Degree Completion. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 168: 320-27.
     

  51. Porche, M., Fortuna, L., Lin, J., and Alegria, M. (2011). Childhood Trauma and Psychiatric Disorders as Correlates of School Dropout in a National Sample of Young Adults. Child Development 2011 May; 82(3):982-998.
     

  52. Potochnick, Stephanie (2014). How States Can Reduce the Dropout Rate for Undocumented Immigrant Youth: The Effects of In-State Resident Tuition Policies. Social Science Research 45: 1832 pp. Web.
     

  53. Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M., et al. (2015). The Long-Term Effects of School Dropout and GED Attainment on Substance Use Disorders. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 158: 60-66 pp. Web.
     

  54. Rodríguez-Planas, Núria (2012). Longer-Term Impacts of Mentoring, Educational Services, and Learning Incentives: Evidence from a Randomized Trial in the United States.American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 4(4): 121-39. 
     

  55. Rouse, Cecilia E. (2005). The Labor Market Consequences of an Inadequate Education.Paper presented at the Symposium on the social costs of inadequate education, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, October 24-25. Accessed March 10, 2015, from http://www.tc.columbia.edu/centers/EquitySymposium/symposium/resource.asp; http://www.schoolfunding.info/issues/socialcosts.pdf
     

  56. Shonkoff, J.P. & Garner, A.S. (2012). The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics, 129, e232-e246
     

  57. Shuger, L. (2012). Teen Pregnancy and High School Dropout: What Communities are Doing to Address These Issues. Washington, DC: The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy and America’s Promise Alliance.
     

  58. Southwick, S. M., Morgan, C. A., Vythilingam, M., & Charney, D. (2005). Mentors enhance resilience in at-risk children and adolescents. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 255–291.
     

  59. Slavin, Robert E. (2010). Can Financial Incentives Enhance Educational Outcomes? Evidence from International Experiments. Educational Research Review Vol 5, Issue 1: 68-80. ​
     

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